Vehicle to Public & Overarching Use Case

Over 50% of EU population lives in apartments, leaving many EVs to be parked in the public space. SCALE will implement and test ecosystems of smart charging and V2X that will help municipalities and parking operators manage energy demand, relieve local congestion, and support reducing peak loads. The call for a ‘right to plug’ in apartments and non-residential buildings increases the importance of charging infrastructure which is capable of reducing the need for grid reinforcements. 

This section includes 2 use cases from the Vehicle to Public Cluster & 1 overarching use case.

1 - Oslo

Showcasing V2G at a car dealership


The use case will take place in Lørenskog, Norway, in the HQ of one of Norway’s largest car dealerships and importers of cars. The dealership is looking into new business models due to the rise of the e-mobility market.

This use case will focus on the optimisation of charging according to the market price and usability by reducing peak power. The vehicle’s capabilities of V2G (KIA) will be showcased as well as the benefits of smart charging and V2G for car-sharing fleets.

By using smart charging and V2G, the charging plaza should lower the grid’s peak and the load curve should align (inverted) with local production and energy prices. Opportunities from V2G over AC connected to existing vehicles will be looked into.


Utilising local charging facility 9 AC charge points and 2 AC bidirectional charge points.


  • Reduce cost for charging through smart charging (avoiding peak loads) while delivering enough power in time.
  • Generate revenue from flexibility.
  • Find a business model for V2G that includes the drivers.

Use case lead: CURRENT

Visualisation System Architecture

2 - Budapest

V2G and smart zero emission building energy management pilot in Erzsebetvaros, city center Budapest


The use case will take place in Erzsebetvaros, an inner city district of Budapest, at a traditional market hall. V2G capable chargers will be installed for the public in V1G in the project period and for V2G compliant cars leased via the project for selected users for testing and demonstration.

As part of a newly designed energy community, the use case will demonstrate how such a system including a PV system, 2 smart V2G AC charging stations and a storage system enables the maximisation of renewable energy usage while making use of the battery capacities of the vehicles parked at the site to act as buffers and balancers. The building will be equipped with a 100kWp rooftop solar PV in 2023




  • Increase the self-consumption of onsite solar PV through V1G and V2G technology.
  • Reduce electricity bills for the building. The EV will be charged at off-peak times when the electricity price is low and will be discharged at peak times when the demand for electricity is high.
  • Due to high power tariffs, reducing the peak load is another goal to be achieved by this use case. In this scenario, the EV scheduling will be done to not charge the EV at peak time, and if possible to discharge it during that period.
  • The demonstrations will be conducted following a modification of the ISO standard 15118-2 and later utilizing a full integration of the 15118-20 standard for the V2G communication

Use case lead: Emobility Solutions

Visualisation System Architecture

Public – Overarching

This use case incorporates components of all four clusters.


Bi-directional ecosystem via combined V2G service from large car sharing program (500 cars and 3.000 chargers) under a single owning entity


In Utrecht (NL), a unique bi-directional ecosystem has been created which currently is the largest V2G living lab in the world. It consists of around 650 AC-bidirectional charging stations and about 250 smart-charging shared EVs. The ‘Utrecht bidirectional Ecosystem’ supports power system stability, supplies flexibility to the electricity grid with the goal to reduce or postpone grid reinforcement costs, lowers the peak load of the power system, and is a major driver for innovation and upscaling of AC-V2G technology. This use case is set up to prove the potential when AC-V2G services are scaled up.

The pilot is based on a fleet of V2G cars which is owned by a single professional entity, this enables easy bundling and intelligent charging management. The V2G chargers are also available for ‘normal’ on-street parking and can charge non-V2X-ready cars.


500 V2G capable cars and 3000 V2G capable charging points, delivering congestion management 


  • Congestion management – reduce and/or delay the need for future grid reinforcements with associated high societal costs, thus also reducing the future costs of EV driving for all users.
  • Grid balancing (via Day Ahead / FCR / AFRR) and time-of-use price arbitrage – reducing charging costs for shared EV exploitation and private EV charging.
  • Maximised utilisation of renewables by EVs.
  • Creating a virtual power plant that can deliver above services in order to reduce grid. reinforcement costs as well as EV charging / driving costs in the future.

Use case lead: We Drive Solar

Visualisation System Architecture

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