Consumer Preferences, Incentives and Motivations in Smart and V2X Charging – Webinar 3 

Our third webinar focused on the consumers. It looked at their preferences, incentives, and motivations in smart and V2X charging. We heard from Ellen Hiep (Dutch EV Drivers’ Association) who presented SCALE research on consumer behaviour in smart and V2X charging and Evangelos Karfopoulos (National Technical University of Athens) who showcased eCharge4Drivers research on EV drivers’ a priori concerns. The session was moderated by Edwin Bestebreurtje (FIER Sustainable Mobility).   

An overview of how EV drivers in seven European countries look at vehicle-to-anything (V2X) and smart charging

Ellen Hiep  

As part of SCALE, this year, the Dutch (VER) and Norwegian (Elbil) EV drivers’ associations, with the support of Global EV Alliance (GEVA) undertook an extensive survey on how electric drivers perceive V2X and smart charging. Over 3 000 EV drivers responded across seven European countries (Hungary, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Austria, Norway, and the Netherlands). The two EV associations also did in-depth expert interviews with representatives from EV drivers in these countries. The survey results were published in a SCALE deliverable (see deliverable at the bottom of the article).

An overview of the key findings from the survey: 

Smart charging 

  • Respondents were aware of what smart charging is and were either willing or already doing it. 
  • Their motivations to do smart charging are the financial gains and because it is more environmentally friendly.  
  • Drivers want to have control and insights over the smart charging sessions. 
  • Most users trust OEMs or grid operators/electricity providers most to control their smart charging process. There are variations between countries: while in Poland, users trust car manufacturers twice as much as grid operators, in the Netherlands, it is the opposite. Many users stated that they only trust themselves and no third parties. 
  • Recommendations: Addressing user needs and expectations while effectively communicating the benefits of smart charging will be key to widespread adoption. 


  • Most drivers recognize the value of V2X with a strong preference for V2H (Vehicle to Home) options such as solar panels and smart house technology. Again, there are variations related to local context. In the Netherlands, 45% of users claimed they would want to use V2X to contribute to overall grid stability. This was the lowest priority for Norwegian EV drivers.  
  • 8 out of 10 EV drivers have concerns related to V2X adoption. The biggest ones are battery degradation (these where higher in countries with lower EV penetration rates), fears that their EV will not have enough battery capacity when they need it and handing over control of charging. 
  • The willingness to participate in V2G is not very high but increases a lot when there are financial benefits. 

Going further 

  • It is crucial to differentiate between smart charging and V2X, as they represent distinct concepts that require a differentiation of strategies for adoption.  
  • The literature review shows a lack of consumer-oriented research on smart charging and V2X technology.  
  • The varying perceptions toward V2X adoption, concerns, and interests, needs to be taken into consideration when this new technology is being debated and developed. 

EV Charging Infrastructure for improved User Experience: A priori user survey

Evangelos Karfopoulos  

eCharge4Drivers, a Horizon 2020 project (2020-2024), is enhancing the EV charging experience in urban areas and on trans-national corridors. It offers user-centric and interoperable solutions including improved charging infrastructure, e-mobility services and decision support tools. 

What are EV drivers’ main barriers? 

A survey undertaken in 2020 and 2023 by SBD Automotive showcases shifting EV drivers’ barriers as the market matures. Range anxiety and the price of EVs are decreasing barriers for drivers to get an EV. 

A 2021 eCharge4Drivers survey (see publication at bottom of the article), which collected around 3 000 responses, found:  

  • Drivers prefer to charge at home. Around 90% of users charge at home, but also want access to public charging.  
  • They park for approximately 12 hours, ideal for smart charging services. 
  • Smart charging flexibility. Users can provide 45 min. – 3 hours of flexibility during slow charging and 30 min to an hour for fast chargers, with smart charging better suited for slow charging. 
  • Public charging point occupancy is low: it varies from 9% to 32% (in rare cases).  
  • Users are willing to pay more for fast charging solutions.  
  • Most survey respondents were male, suggesting a need to actively work on strategies to include women in the e-mobility evolution and make it more gender-balanced. 

How can some of the EV users’ barriers be overcome?  

  • Implement pricing policies that are simple and transparent via mobile applications as well as on the charging station. Allow ad-hoc payment without any contract is crucial. 
  • Provide e-mobility services facilitating user’s accessibility and charging experience (routing, booking, smart charging). 
  • Offer diverse charging technologies (public/private, AC/DC) to adequately develop charging infrastructure, including V2X and options for light vehicles (e.g., battery swapping). 
  • Plan an adequate (public) charging network considering grid constraints and maximise the usage of existing charging network. 
  • Offer incentives and advanced tariffication schemes to support the wide deployment of charging infrastructure. 

Successful deployment of smart charging in Grenoble  

As part of eCharge4Drivers, a Grenoble demo is showcasing the correlation between EV charging and PV production (see powerpoint for diagrams). Smart charging was done in more than 90% of the cases by the users (it is an acceptable and beneficial service for EV users) and it led to a 20% cost reduction and a 95% increase in solar self-consumption. 

Echarge4drivers is currently in the demo phase, testing smart tariff acceptance in Barcelona, exploring auto consumption in Grenoble, and gamifying charging certificates in Luxembourg. 

Final discussion points during the panel

  • Is there a European or common understanding of what V2X and smart charging is? No, and this may be complicated due to national variations in its conceptualisation and the number of parties involved. 
  • Is V2H popular because it’s what users understand best? It’s easier for users to see the benefits of Vehicle to Home because they can directly benefit from cheap and green energy, and financial gains. They have and see the direct connection between the home and the vehicle. It’s a great way forward to start the V2X transition. Overall, EV users want to know what and how they can benefit from smart charging or V2X.  
  • Business models. V2G and V2X are different concepts with various business opportunities. V2H is limited only to the house, but V2G could provide wider services to more stakeholders. However, currently there are few mechanisms to fully exploit the V2G functionality. 
  • There are still few V2X capable vehicles. For users, it’s not (really) possible for most EV drivers to use the technology yet. In addition, in most European countries, V2G is not possible especially in for public charging.   

Recording: Webinar 3 – Consumer Preferences, Incentives and Motivations in Smart and V2X Charging – YouTube


Stories from public authorities leading public charging networks – Webinar 2

Our second webinar focused on how public authorities are steering public (smart) charging. We heard from Gertjan Geurts (Project lead EU, Municipality of Utrecht), Eva Sunnerstedt (Head of Unit – Clean Vehicles and Fuels, City of Stockholm) and Angel Lopez (Director of Electromobility Strategies, Barcelona City Council). The session was moderated by Edwin Bestebreurtje (FIER Sustainable Mobility).

Knowledge sharing and storytelling are essential between public authorities to advance smart charging and V2X charging.

Local authorities are key contributors to the electrification of mobility. The SCALE consortium spent months doing interviews and surveys to gather perspectives, stories, and strategies of local and regional authorities, as well as DSOs (Distribution Service Operators) and TSOs (Transmission Service Operators). From this work, overarching recommendations were drawn. These include the need to create digital tools for cities like a European Integrated EV Mobility and Energy Planning Tool, to utilise the policy ‘super’ power of the EU to solve the chicken-and-egg problem of smart charging and V2G (particularly for hardware and software) and incentivise publicly accessible charging infrastructure on private land with smart charging requirements. But behind these recommendations lie stories of local changemakers working in municipalities who were leading the electromobility transition in bold and innovative ways. We invited two interviewees back to share how their cities were envisioning and implementing public charging.

Stockholm, stepping up to the electromobility boom.

Last year, 60% of the new car sales were either electric or electric hybrid in Sweden. Providing charging is essential.

Leading the way. The municipality started by providing charging in off-street parking facilities. Today, the city-owned company ‘Stockholm Parkering AB’ owns and manages 30,000 parking places. All their facilities will be equipped with charging by 2026, with some being smart. In regard to on-street charging, Stockholm groups its infrastructure – it currently has 200 charging streets, adding up to 1 000 charging units, and aims to increase these to 1 500 by the end of the year. The charging street concept is not only more efficient economically (digging streets is expensive!), but also easier to navigate for EV drivers as spots are concentrated. In addition, the city of Stockholm owns 50,000 off-street parking places that they control through their properties (e.g. housing estates and sports arenas). These will need to have 100% charging by 2030 in the city, and 80% in the suburbs. Through internal guidelines, regular information exchange, and pooled procurement, the city has managed to scale up public charging. Of course, the municipalities’ fleet is electric, and they require EVs in their procurement of transportation services.

Working with the private sector. The City of Stockholm signs 10-year access agreements with the private sector who is in charge of financing, operating, and maintaining the infrastructure. In exchange, the private sector must share data on its activities to the municipality and the latter picks the locations of the points. A key lesson from the capital is that the cooperation between stakeholders, especially the grid operator, is essential.

Let’s not forget about home charging. Stockholm is putting an emphasis on home charging as 90% of Stockholmers live in multi-family homes. The city leads information campaigns including meetings, webinars and meet & greets with charge point suppliers which has been very successful.  Users also get nudged financially: they have access to state funding and tax deductions. These are not tied to smart charging requirements per se, but the charge points must follow European requirements, be able to track the electricity used and they must have the capacity to bill.

Be ambitious and prepared. Adding charging in a city leads to many legal and administrative issues. In Sweden, the legislation is not really adapted to the EV transition. Many questions arose about the types of contracts (e.g., the use of access right agreements) or parking regulations the municipality should rely on. Small-scale pilots are essential to demonstrate how the legislation can be used, before a full deployment.

What about the grid? Sweden produces more electricity than it consumes. Yet the grid is an issue in Stockholm. Electricity is generated in the north of the country, while most people live in the south, and the local grid in the capital dates from the 1950s. Installing charging, especially fast and heavy-vehicle charging, requires costly grid upgrades. 

Barcelona, investing in off-street charging to preserve the public space.

The dense city of Barcelona has a very different story to tell, it has less than 3% of EVs on its roads. Beyond the charging of cars, the municipality has also focused from the start on light vehicle charging.

Charging locations according to vehicle sizes. In 2009, the Spanish Government created a mobility program to boost electromobility in the country. Through this program, Barcelona developed a network of chargers only for motorbikes on-street and for cars off-street in parking facilities. In their vision, charging in public spaces should be restricted, especially on-street. It should serve the purpose of emergency charging (fast charging) and opportunity charging (e.g charging while doing groceries). In a nutshell, this works as a safety net for users and to reduce range anxiety.

A 100% publicly managed network. Public charging is completely led, financed, owned, managed and maintained by the municipality and its companies. Publicly owned BSM (Barcelona de Serveis Municipals) acts as a CPO, and its trademarks (Endolla and SMOU) as MSPs. They have around 1 000 chargers, with 50 being on-street fast chargers, but their current use is below capacity.

Using an array of regulations. The municipality of Barcelona has employed a range of legal instruments to steer strategically public charging. For example, all new or remodeled/refurbished parking facilities must have charging points. At least one charger for every 10 places for cars, and the same applies for motorbikes. In addition, building new refueling stations has become forbidden and current ones need to gradually transition to offer charging services.

Making users ambassadors of smart charging. Through the EU-funded project eCharge4Drivers, the city is testing ways to improve users’ acceptability of smart charging through enhanced booking services for public charging, battery swapping for light EVs, and user engagement. Smart charging allows to reduce the quantity of public charging points needed per EV, while tapping into renewable energies efficiently and reducing the impact on the grid. But getting users to share their data, plan their charging ahead, when they will drop and take their vehicle, or the distance they will travel has not been an easy task.

“Vehiclebatteries-to-grid”? With a strong focus on light EV charging, the municipality of Barcelona is looking to test smart charging in its battery-swapping centers. This could lead to revenues for the municipality.

A few final remarks

  • Implementing or requiring V2X and smart charging for local authorities is not an easy task, one of the biggest blockers is the legislation – not the technology. Pilots are popping up, but these generally require special permits.
  • Variable tariffs are key to push users to charge their vehicles during off-peak hours. However, it is tricky to explain to users that MSP offers may vary with prices changing over time. There are some legal issues because users have the right to know prices before they charge, but to do so, the private sector needs a lot of data which users are reluctant to share. There is also a lack of transparency from CPOs and MSPs on how they establish variable tariffs.
  • We should keep an eye on the case of Utrecht. With a forecasted high growth of EVs, they are creating a bidirectional charging system to develop a sustainable, city-wide and flexible system that supports the grid and an energy-efficient mobility ecosystem. A key ingredient to their success has been getting many stakeholders onboard including the DSO, but also private companies like WeDriveSolar, as well as universities. In addition, the city is introducing a zero-emission zone from 2025 and a charging corridor for long range trucks.

The webinar is accessible on Youtube.


Key lessons on the smart charging ecosystem – Webinar 1

The first webinar of the “SCALE Summer Sessions” was held on Thursday, 6 July and looked into “the smart charging ecosystem: who is who? What are their drivers and barriers?”.

This webinar was hosted by POLIS and moderated by Edwin Bestebreurtje from FIER Sustainable Mobility, experts on the charging infrastructure field and a key consortium member.

Marisca Zweistra from ElaadNL, SCALE’s project coordinating organisation and co-author of the Stakeholder Analysis, presented key findings from the publication and research which mapped out the extensive list of stakeholders and key players in the smart charging ecosystem. She was then joined in a panel discussion by Frank Geerts (ElaadNL) and Willem Christiaens (FIER Sustainable Mobility).

Key findings and discussion points:

    • Start from the users because creating a user-centric smart charging system which incorporates their needs is essential for them to accept smart charging protocols and incentives. EVs present a huge opportunity for users to participate in electricity markets and they should be able to easily react to price and sustainable incentives. 

    • Everyone must be on board, and they are highly interconnected: regulators and public authorities, knowledge partners, DSO and TSO, flexibility service providers, OEMs, CPOs… they all have a role to play and their needs, challenges, processes and roles are linked together. Smart and V2X charging requires robust cooperation of the whole value chain (or it simply won’t happen): it really is an ecosystem!

    • Data availability is key to controlling and deploying smart charging (e.g. knowing when cars will charge, the state of charge of the batteries, how many vehicles will be charging, how the drivers will react, etc.). Drivers already have access to some of this data, but they do not have the processes or incentives to share it with the charging ecosystem.

    • A European regulatory framework would (really) help create interoperable and common protocols for smart charging, as well as create a shared understanding of what is and falls under smart charging and V2X among all Member States.

    • Suppliers and aggregators are facing difficulties in bringing smart charging a step further. There have been many pilots, insights, research exercises and tests that have proved the value of smart charging. However, how to offer a fair balance between flexibility and compensation is tricky. Users, OEMs, CPOs and other stakeholders need to all have incentives to participate in smart charging and V2X markets.

    • Many EVs (electric vehicles) are needed to make a difference. To tap into flexible markets and ensure the e-mobility sector can support the grid, a big volume of EVs is needed, and it is not the case in Europe yet. At the same time, grids are already facing congestion. Understanding and deploying smart charging must start now, but pilots are still relatively small and do not have a significant impact. It is a chicken and egg problem: legislators are not making significant progress in congestion management schemes and as a result, OEMs are not really interested in smart charging and V2X.

    • Pilots are important to bring stakeholders together, and SCALE is doing just that! SCALE has 13 pilots in 7 European contexts with a consortium of 29 partners that represent the full value chain of smart charging and V2X. They are testing a range of energy services including optimisation behind the meter, grid-related services, congestion management, etc. Through the pilots, the consortium is identifying problems in smart charging deployment, and finding solutions. For example:
      • The use cases require a lot of data exchange and each stakeholder owns a component of these sets. The ecosystem needs to be well consolidated for these exchanges to happen, which are based on existing protocols. However, these protocols are insufficient (e.g. communicating between the vehicle, charging point and CPO). New standards are essential (e.g. ISO 15118-20 and the latest OCPP), but they require a lot of work and development efforts by all stakeholders. 
      • In regard to regulation, SCALE use cases have encountered challenges with grid code compliance: every generator that provides electricity into the grid must comply with standards that are unique to each country. However, with smart charging, vehicles may travel between countries, and they must be able to comply with different grid codes. This is an identified regulatory gap in the grid codes.

An audience of 65 people attended the webinar and had the opportunity to engage in lively discussions. For a full recording of the webinar, please follow SCALE’s YouTube channel by clicking on this link.

If you want to know more about the work showcased in this webinar, please see our ‘Resources’ section, where you can find our Stakeholder Analysis, as well as the short read version.

We are launching a webinar series on smart charging and V2X!

SCALE’s webinar series on smart charging and V2X is about to start, and it will be a unique opportunity to learn!

Is there anything better than taking the time to learn and grow during the summer? We have prepared a handful of short and interactive webinars that will span from July until October.

These webinars are an invitation to slow down, discuss and learn from each other. Each will be between 45 minutes and an hour and will consist of a quick presentation and lively discussions. They are designed for everybody working or interested in the e-mobility sector, from data analysts, policy makers, to researchers and professionals in the industry. The goal of the series is to discuss key findings of the SCALE and the e-mobility sector’s hottest topics.

A first webinar on the smart charging ecosystem

The first webinar of the “SCALE Summer Sessions” series is on Thursday July 6 (15:00-16:00 CET) and will look into “the smart charging ecosystem: who is who? What are their drivers and barriers?“. It will include a snapshot presentation of the smart charging and V2X ecosystem based on ElaadNL and FIER Sustainable Mobility‘s expertise and research in the project. There will also be time for a structured discussion and open Q&A. The webinar will be based on a stakeholder analysis available on our website in the publication section.

  • Date: 06/07/2023 – 15:00 to 16:00 CET
  • Speakers: Marisca Zweistra & Frank Geerts (ElaadNL) and Willem Christiaens (FIER Sustainable Mobility)
  • Moderator: Edwin Bestebreurtje (FIER Sustainable Mobility

Register now by clicking on this link.

What is coming next?

The next webinars of the series will start after the summer and will look at the following topics.

  • Cities and regions’ needs and challenges in integrated planning for smart charging and V2X services – early September
  • Hard- and software requirements for EVs, charging stations and Charge Point Operators for V2X – late September
  • Consumer behaviour, needs and challenges including smart charging and V2X – October

To stay update on the upcoming webinars, follow the SCALE LinkedIn page!

Press Release – Dutch Ministerial Visit of an Energy-balancing Mobility Hub in Utrecht (We Drive Solar)

How exactly can electric vehicles be the solution to overloading the grid? The new sustainable residential area Wisselspoor in Utrecht is finding out!

On 24 May, Minister Hugo de Jonge and State Secretary Vivianne Heijnen, led by alderman Eelco Eerenberg, visited an energy-balancing mobility hub in sustainable residential area Wisselspoor. In this neighbourhood, sustainable mobility, a mixed commuting area, a car-free living environment and energy transition come together. A large local solar energy system charges bi-directional electric cars with sustainable solar energy. The vehicles can feed back electricity to the grid to balance and help supply electricity to the district. Use of space for parking is also reduced by deploying 100% electric shared mobility.

The Utrecht Bidirectional Ecosystem, of which Wisselspoor is part, is a prominent SCALE Use Case to be developed and scaled up. Vehicle-to-Grid technology in Utrecht has reached a unique scale and is a driver for technological and institutional innovations that SCALE is developing. The Wisselspoor location, a sustainable housing development with shared V2G EVs as part of the proposition to the new inhabitants, offers the opportunity to integrate V2G technology, sustainable mobility and sustainable housing into one integrated concept.

A New Innovative Neighbourhood

Grid congestion, or overloading of the electricity grid, is a growing problem in the Netherlands. Due to the strong growth of electric vehicles, solar panel generation and all electric housing districts, new neighbourhoods can only be connected to the grid to a limited extent. Wisselspoor is a new district for living and working in the heart of Utrecht, built on a former Dutch Railways (NS) industrial site. The sustainable district will eventually grow to around 1,200 homes, the first 122 of which have been delivered.

In the first subarea of Wisselspoor, the results of the “City Deal electric shared mobility” are visible. In this housing development project, bi-directional electric shared cars are in use by residents, which can both charge and supply energy back (vehicle-to-grid). Wisselspoor subarea 1 was developed by Synchroon, in partnership with the municipality of Utrecht and NS Stations, Studioninedots and Delva Landscape Architecture.

“In Wisselspoor, we show that with electric shared cars you can reduce car ownership, requiring less space for parking. At the same time, we deploy these cars as a buffer for solar and wind energy. In doing so, we contribute to accelerating the transition to a 100% sustainable energy system.” – Robin Berg (We Drive Solar)

Towards a solution to grid congestion

The central car park in Wisselspoor subarea one offers a unique opportunity to investigate the role of bi-directional charging to enable all-electric districts to be connected to the electricity grid even when the grid is already experiencing congestion. The district already has a large solar energy system on the roofs of the houses and the mobility hub, where there is a bi-directional charging system for both shared cars from We Drive Solar and residents’ own cars.

For more information contact: Robin Berg, We Drive Solar (

Snapshot Interview: a deep stakeholder analysis of the smart charging ecosystem

Within SCALE, Sander Langenhuizen, Hanna van Sambeek, Marisca Zweistra (ElaadNL), Sascha van der Wilt and Willem Christiaens (FIER Automotive & Mobility) published a thorough stakeholder analysis of the smart charging ecosystem. It highlights the diversity in needs and barriers of each stakeholder in the smart charging sector, as well as their interdependencies and the need to create robust synergies.

We did a short interview to hear more about their work.

Estimated reading time: 3 min 
1. What is required to create a more flexible and interoperable charging system in Europe? 

It is important to combat the chicken-and-egg issue of smart charging and V2X. Manufacturers of EVs and charging stations are still hesitant to invest in smart mobility solutions, most notably Vehicle-to-Grid. Uncertainties on future demand by EV drivers for V2X services and unclear and fragmented legislation across Member States negatively impact the business case for manufacturers. Increasing public awareness of these smart solutions is key in helping manufacturers build a sustainable business case.

Furthermore, the European Union should build a clear framework for smart charging and V2X by defining when an EV or charging station can be considered ‘smart charging ready’ or ‘V2X ready’.  

Flexible markets should be developed further to allow easier access of small assets like EVs. Formal access has been possible since the introduction of the aggregator role in European legislation, but there are still some major steps that need to be taken in terms of market development. For instance, prequalification procedures to access flexibility markets should be simplified in order to alleviate the administrative burden of aggregators. Giving EV drivers access to proprietary EV data is another important step that needs to be taken. 

2. What is the role of the EU in facilitating these? Any strategies, policies, principles etc.? 

The energy system has changed drastically in recent years as a result of the electrification of industrial sectors and the growth of decentralised production. The EU should take these developments into consideration in their policy framework. Most notably in the context of V2X is the incorporation of energy storage in new EU legislation, such as the European grid codes. The EU can play a key role in mitigating the chicken-and-egg issue by investigating and implementing policies such as tax breaks for EVs capable of V2X. Again, defining ‘V2X ready’ is a crucial first step the EU needs to take. 

The deployment of smart charging and V2X requires the collection, management, and sharing of personal data. The EU should therefore pay particular attention to the core principles of data protection, privacy, and cybersecurity when further developing its policy framework. Finding the right balance between policies on data security (such as the General Data Protection Regulation and the ‘right to be forgotten’) on the one hand, and policies aimed at optimising e-mobility services should remain a main consideration of the EU. 

3. How can SCALE use these lessons in its 13 use cases?

There is a multitude of solutions that can be implemented to accelerate flexibility in market development. Determining which solution is the most optimal for unlocking the flexibility of EVs can best be done by testing them in practice.

SCALE’s use cases give us the perfect opportunity to test new policy propositions. The project’s high number of use cases makes it possible to test multiple solutions simultaneously and compare the results of the pilots more easily. 

The SCALE partners are using the lessons from the stakeholder analysis to set up the use cases. Through the stakeholder analysis, the entire value chain can more easily be considered, ultimately leading to more successful smart charging and V2X solutions.

Both a thorough and short read of the document are available in the publications section of our website (see D1.2).

SCALE – Press Release

SCALE – Smart Charging Alignment for Europe – is a three-year Horizon Europe project that explores and tests smart charging solutions for electric vehicles (EV).  

SCALE is a new Horizon Europe project that kicked off in June 2022. Leading European cities, universities and knowledge partners, networks, and energy and electric vehicle (EV) industry pioneers joined forces to explore and test smart EV charging and Vehicle-2-Everything (V2X) solutions. The project will support the transition towards a new energy ecosystem wherein the flexibility that EV batteries offer will be harnessed for the first time.

SCALE is a 3-year project co-funded by the new Horizon Europe Programme with a budget of ca. €10 million. 

SCALE contributes to the European Partnership “Towards zero-emission road transport” (2ZERO). The uptake of EVs in a mass-deployment scenario, coupled with the flexibility of renewable energy generation, could form the basis of a decentralised power system simultaneously decarbonising both transport and energy sectors.  

In Europe, the mass deployment of electric vehicles is driven by the EU Smart Mobility strategy, EU Green Deal and the interim Fitfor55 Package, all aiming for a climate-neutral Europe. An increase in EV sales significantly impacts energy demand and the power system which leads to the need for implementing smart and digitally controlled charging systems and preparing energy networks to utilise the surplus energy stored in EV batteries through state-of-the-art V2X technologies. In fact, mass-deployable innovations to seamlessly integrate EVs into the power system will increase energy efficiency and the share of renewable energy in households, neighbourhoods, industries, cities and regions. This would have a particularly high impact on reducing carbon emissions.  

SCALE’s different V2X solutions and innovations will be systematically tested, validated and deployed across various demonstration sites and use cases in Europe, thus, being globally the first-of-its-kind attempt at this scale. 

SCALE’s strategic objective is to create an open system solution, deploying a user-centric approach, thus reducing the need for power grid reinforcement investments through smart charging and V2X solutions. 

SCALE paves the way to achieving the Fitfor55 goals. The project will test and validate a variety of smart charging and V2X solutions and services in 13 use cases in real-life demonstrations in 7 European contexts: Oslo (NO), Rotterdam/Utrecht (NL), Eindhoven (NL), Toulouse (FR), Greater Munich Area (DE), Budapest/Debrecen (HU) and Gothenburg (SE).

The project sees charging solutions as a continuum of a) unidirectional static, b) dynamic & c) bidirectional charging with the latter two charging concepts moving beyond state-of-the-art technology and offering a systemic solution. Project results, best practices, and lessons learned will be transferred across EU cities & regions, as well as relevant e-mobility stakeholders. SCALE aims to create a system blueprint for user-centric smart charging & V2X for European cities & regions. 

The consortium comprises 29 cutting-edge European stakeholders covering the entire smart charging and V2X value chain (equipment and charging manufacturers, flexibility service providers, research and knowledge partners, public authorities, consumer associations, etc.). It is led by ElaadNL, one of the world’s leading knowledge and innovation centres in smart charging and charging infrastructure. 

Quick facts
  • SCALE is funded by the European Union Horizon Europe Research and Innovation Programme, GA number: 101056874 
  • Duration: 1 June 2022 – 31 May 2025 
  • Pilot sites: Oslo (NO), Rotterdam/Utrecht (NL), Eindhoven (NL), Toulouse (FR), Greater Munich Area (GER), Budapest/Debrecen (HU), Gothenburg (SE)